Dr. Carole M. Billiet

Master in Law
Master in Anthropology
Ph.D. in Law
Carole Billiet is Research Director Environmental Law at the Center for Environmental and Energy Law (CM&ER) of the UGent. Since years, her research focuses on public law enforcement, especially the administrative enforcement of environmental law. She also studies the use and interrelation of environmental policy instruments, with a specific interest in authorization mechanisms. Her theoretical work is complemented by empirical research such as inspection policies, criminal and administrative fining, and criminal and administrative remedial sanctioning. She has been part of several law & economics research projects dealing with those topics. Currently, she works on public law enforcement systems for collaborative policy fields (national heritage, child care), the relations between enforcement actors (inspections – prosecutors, administrations – criminal courts, NGO’s – criminal courts) and the EU law dimension of environmental law enforcement. She is chair of the working group Sanctioning, prosecution and judicial practice of the EU LIFE+ project LIFE14 GIE/UK/000043 (2015-2020) aiming to improve capacity and effectiveness in the prosecution of environmental crime throughout the EU (

Carole Billiet is also lawyer at the Brussels Bar ( She has served as vice-president and acting president of the Environmental Enforcement Court of Flanders, an administrative high court created to support the enforcement of environmental law in the Flemish Region (2009-2015), and as member of the Environmental College of the Brussels Capital Region, an independent body deciding on appeals against environmental permitting decisions and administrative sanctions imposed for environmental offences (2000-2009).


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