Which environmental legislation is included in the analysis of criminal sanctioning?
The legislation examined in this study includes the following Acts and Cooperation Agreements, complemented with their respective implementation orders, with all successive modifications:
- Air Pollution Act 1964;
- Pesticides Act 1969;
- Surface Water Act 1971;
- Noise Pollution Act 1973;
- Waste Act 1981;
- Ground Water Act 1984;
- Environmental Licensing Act 1985;
- Non-ionizing Radiation Act 1985;
- Environmental Taxation Act 1993;
- Ionizing Radiation Act 1994;
- Environmental Charter Act 1994;
- General Environmental Provisions Act 1995;
- Product Standards Act 1998;
- Marine Environment Act 1999;
- Cooperation Agreement 1999 Seveso II.
Breaches of environmental licenses awarded under the abrogated Title I ARAB 1946 are also included as they still were in use (validity for 30 years, ultimately 2011) and thus sanctioned.
Since the study deals with the sanctioning practices between 2003-2007, the Manure Act 2006, the Soil Act 2006 and the Cooperation Agreement 2008 Packaging Waste did not occur in the dataset. However the predecessors of these legislative texts, which bear important similarities to the actual legislation, were included in the study:
- Fertilizer Act 1991;
- Soil Cleanup Act 1995;
- Cooperation Agreement 1996 Packaging Waste.